Cardiac & Hypertension Studies

Nordic Walking may be an appropriate fitness activity for those cardiac patients who are post-rehabilitation as well as individuals with hypertension.

Consult with your medical professional and a certified Nordic Walking instructor or Physical Therapist to determine what level of Nordic Walking is appropriate for you and to ensure you are walking with the correct technique for your individual condition.

Oxygen uptake during Nordic walking training in patients rehabilitated after coronary events.

Nordic walking (NW) is an effective form of endurance training in cardiac rehabilitation (CR). The key parameter for the safety and effectiveness of the training is its intensity. The aim if this study is to assess the intensity of NW training in field conditions by measuring VO₂, energy expenditure (EE), and heart rate (HR) in comparison with a treadmill cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) in a group of patients rehabilitated after coronary events.

These data suggest that the use of poles in NW attenuates muscle activity in the lower extremities during the stance and push-off phases, and decreases that of the lower extremities and increase energy expenditure of the upper body and respiratory system at certain walking speeds.

Nordic poles immediately improve walking distance in patients with intermittent claudication.

This study is intended to investigate the immediate effects of Nordic pole walking (NPW) on walking distance and cardiopulmonary workload in patients with intermittent claudication.

These results show that NPW immediately enables patients with intermittent claudication to walk further with less pain, despite a higher workload. NPW might also be a useful exercise strategy for improving the cardiovascular fitness of patients with intermittent claudication.

Randomized trial of Nordic walking in patients with moderate to severe heart failure.

Patients with heart failure are a growing population within cardiac rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to compare, through a single-centre, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial, the effects of Nordic walking and standard cardiac rehabilitation care on functional capacity and other outcomes in patients with moderate to severe heart failure.

Nordic walking was superior to standard cardiac rehabilitation care in improving functional capacity and other important outcomes in patients with heart failure. This exercise modality is a promising alternative for this population.

Nordic walking enhances oxygen uptake without increasing the rate of perceived exertion in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

In healthy subjects, Nordic walking (NW) generates higher oxygen uptake (V˙O2) than standard walking at an equal rate of perceived exertion (RPE). The feasibility and positive outcomes of NW in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been reported. The aim of the current study is to assess the physiological responses and RPE during NW in COPD patients.

In COPD patients, the use of Nordic poles generates higher V˙O2 than standard walking with no differences in the dyspnea score. The results indicate the potential to enhance community-based training programs in these patients.

Nordic Walking – a new form of exercise in rehabilitation

The main goal of using the poles is to involve muscles, which are not used during normal walking. This enables performing high intensity exercises with a relatively low level of perceived exertion. The possible role of Nordic Walking in physical rehabilitation, in particular in early cardiac rehabilitation, was discussed. This paper is based on the available data from the literature  concerning the application of Nordic Walking in rehabilitation of patients early after a myocardial infarction.

The available evidence suggests that Nordic Walking is a natural and safe, yet intensive, form of physical activity that can be widely used in physical rehabilitation.

Effects of Nordic walking training on exercise capacity and fitness in men participating in early, short-term inpatient cardiac rehabilitation after an acute coronary syndrome–a controlled trial.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Nordic Walking training supplemental to a standard, early rehabilitation program on exercise capacity and physical fitness in men after an acute coronary syndrome.

Nordic Walking may improve exercise capacity, lower body endurance and coordination of movements in patients with good exercise tolerance participating in early, short-term rehabilitation after an acute coronary syndrome.

Nordic walking improves daily physical activities in COPD: a randomised controlled trial.

In patients with COPD progressive dyspnoea leads to a sedentary lifestyle. The aim was to determine the feasibility of Nordic Walking in COPD patients at different disease stages. Furthermore we aimed to determine the short- and long-term effects of Nordic Walking on COPD patients’ daily physical activity pattern as well as on patients exercise capacity.

Nordic Walking is a feasible, simple and effective physical training modality in COPD. In addition, Nordic Walking has proven to positively impact the daily physical activity pattern of COPD patients under short- and long-term observation.

Effects of Nordic walking on cardiovascular risk factors in overweight individuals with type 2 diabetes, impaired or normal glucose tolerance.

Physical activity remains a valuable prevention for metabolic disease. The effects of Nordic walking on cardiovascular risk factors were determined in overweight individuals with normal or disturbed glucose regulation.

Nordic walking improved anthropometric measurements and exercise capacity. However, unsupervised Nordic walking may not provide a sufficient increase in exercise intensity to achieve ultimate health-promoting benefits on the cardiovascular parameters assessed in this study, particularly for those with disturbed glucose regulation.

Oxygen uptake, heart rate, perceived exertion, and integrated electromyogram of the lower and upper extremities during level and Nordic walking on a treadmill.

The purpose of this study was to characterize responses in oxygen uptake (V·O(2)), heart rate (HR), perceived exertion (OMNI scale) and integrated electromyogram (iEMG) readings during incremental Nordic walking (NW) and level walking (LW) on a treadmill.

The data suggest that the use of poles in NW attenuates muscle activity in the lower extremities during the stance and push-off phases, and decreases that of the lower extremities and increase energy expenditure of the upper body and respiratory system at certain walking speeds.

12 weeks’ aerobic and resistance training without dietary intervention did not influence oxidative stress but aerobic training decreased atherogenic index in middle-aged men with impaired glucose regulation.

The aim was to determine whether 12 weeks’ aerobic Nordic walking (NW) or resistance exercise training (RT) without diet-induced weight loss could decrease oxidative stress and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP), prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and MetS score in middle-aged men with impaired glucose regulation (IGR) (n=144. 54.5 ± 6.5 years). In addition, we compared effects of intervention between overweight and obese subgroups.

Nordic walking decreased prevalence of MetS and MetS score. Improved lipid profile remained a predictor of decreased MetS score only in NW group and it seems that Nordic walking has more beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease risks than RT training.

The influence of systematic pulse-limited physical exercise on the parameters of the cardiovascular system in patients over 65 years of age.

The aim of the study was to assess the influence of regular 6-week physical exercise using the Nordic walking (NW) method in a group of elderly persons on their physical performance and regulation of selected parameters assessing the cardiovascular system.

Systematic NW physical exercise limited by the pulse had a beneficial effect on the physical performance of elderly persons as assessed with main parameters. A short 6-week programme of endurance exercises had a hypotensive effect in elderly persons over 65 years of age.

Effects of nordic walking compared to conventional walking and band-based resistance exercise on fitness in older adults.

The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Nordic walking with conventional walking and band-based resistance exercise on functional fitness, static balance and dynamic balance in older adults.

Nordic walking and conventional walking both improve cardio-respiratory fitness while resistance training does not. Nordic walking provides additional benefits in upper-body muscular strength compared to conventional walking. Nordic walking is an effective and efficient mode of exercise to improve overall fitness in older adults.

Randomized clinical trial comparing Nordic pole walking and a standard home exercise programme in patients with intermittent claudication.

This was a randomized clinical trial to determine whether Nordic pole walking (NPW) is more effective in improving walking distance than a standard home exercise programme (HEP) in patients with intermittent claudication.

A 12-week exercise programme using Nordic poles significantly improved walking distance in claudicants compared with a standard HEP.

Home-based telemonitored Nordic walking training is well accepted, safe, effective and has high adherence among heart failure patients, including those with cardiovascular implantable electronic devices: a randomised controlled study.

The benefits of rehabilitation in heart failure (HF) patients are well established. Little is known about Nordic walking (NW) training in HF patients especially in those with cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs). The purpose of this study was to assess safety, effectiveness, adherence to and acceptance of home-based telemonitored NW in HF patients, including those with CIEDs (i.e. cardiac resynchronisation therapy, implantable cardioverter-defibrillator).

In HF patients, including those with CIEDs, home-based telemonitored NW is safe and effective. NW was well accepted by patients and adherence was high and promising.

Physiological Responses Associated with Nordic-walking training in Systolic Hypertensive Postmenopausal Women.

Loss of physical strength and hypertension are among the most pronounced detrimental factors accompanying aging. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a supervised 8-week Nordic-walking training program on systolic blood pressure in systolic-hypertensive postmenopausal women.

The obtained results indicate that an 8-week Nordic-walking program may be efficiently employed for counteracting systolic hypertension through a direct abatement of systolic blood pressure and an increase of maximal aerobic capacity.

Effects of Nordic Walking and Pilates exercise programs on blood glucose and lipid profile in overweight and obese postmenopausal women in an experimental, nonrandomized, open-label, prospective controlled trial.

Cardiometabolic effects of physical exercise depend on its intensity, duration, and type. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two exercise models, Nordic Walking (NW) and Pilates, on postmenopausal women.

Exercise training in accordance with the NW model causes statistically and clinically more significant changes in glucose and basic blood lipid levels than do Pilates and dietary intervention alone.

Effect of nordic walking and water aerobics training on body composition and the blood flow in lower extremities in elderly women.

Nordic walking and water aerobics are very popular forms of physical activity in the elderly population. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of regular health training on the venous blood flow in lower extremities and body composition in women over 50 years old.

Eight weeks of Nordic walking training improved the venous blood flow in lower extremities and normalized body composition in the direction of reducing chronic venous disorder risk factors.

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